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Drawings and Pharmacy in al-ZahrāwÄ«’s 10th-Century Surgical Treatise by Sami Hamarneh Probably the earliest independent work in Arabic Spain to embrace the whole of medical knowledge of the time is the encyclopedic al-TasrÄ«f, written in the late 10th century by AbГ…В« al-Qāsim al-ZahrāwÄ«, also known as Abulcasis. Consisting of 30 treatises, it is the only known work of... more...

CHAPTER I   THE PROBLEM OF TO-DAY In the late seventies of last century a pamphlet entitled The Fruits of Philosophy was republished by Mrs. Annie Besant and Mr. Charles Bradlaugh, in their desire to mitigate the suffering of poor women who were overburdened by work and further weakened by frequent child-bearing. They resolved to face public obloquy and even legal prosecution in order to bring to these women knowledge of how to prevent... more...

As this little book goes to press, Massachusetts, by an act of its legislature, is made the fourteenth state in this country that requires the pupils in the primary, as well as in the higher grades of public schools, to be taught the effects of alcoholics and other narcotics upon the human system, in connection with other facts of physiology and hygiene. The object of all this legislation is, not that the future citizen may know the technical... more...

[17] CHAPTER I—INSTRUMENTARIUM Direct laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, esophagoscopy and gastroscopy are procedures in which the lower air and food passages are inspected and treated by the aid of electrically lighted tubes which serve as specula to manipulate obstructing tissues out of the way and to bring others into the line of direct vision. Illumination is supplied by a small tungsten-filamented, electric, "cold" lamp situated at the... more...

INTRODUCTION. IN climbing a mountain, if we know the path and take it as a matter of course, we are free to enjoy the beauties of the surrounding country. If in the same journey we set a stone in the way and recognize our ability to step over it, we do so at once, and save ourselves from tripping or from useless waste of time and thought as to how we might best go round it. There are stones upon stones in every-day life which might be stepped... more...


PREFACE The position taken by the writer of this volume should be clearly understood. It is not the view known as antivivisection, so far as this means the condemnation without exception of all phases of biological investigation. There are methods of research which involve no animal suffering, and which are of scientific utility. Within certain careful limitations, these would seem justifiable. For nearly forty years, the writer has occupied the... more...

I.—CRIMES Forensic medicine is also called Medical Jurisprudence or Legal Medicine, and includes all questions which bring medical matters into relation with the law. It deals, therefore, with (1) crimes and (2) civil injuries. 1. A crime is the voluntary act of a person of sound mind harmful to others and also unjust. No act is a crime unless it is plainly forbidden by law. To constitute a crime, two circumstances are necessary to be... more...

INTRODUCTION. ———•——— The Human Body is the abode of an immortal spirit, and is the most complete and perfect specimen of the Creator's handiwork. To examine its structure, to ascertain the uses and modes of action of its various parts, how to protect it from injury, and maintain it in a healthy condition, is the design of this work. The departments of knowledge which are concerned in these... more...

PREFACE. Agesilaus, king of Sparta, when asked what things boys should learn, replied, “Those which they will practise when they become men.” As health requires the observance of the laws inherent to the different organs of the human system, so not only boys, but girls, should acquire a knowledge of the laws of their organization. If sound morality depends upon the inculcation of correct principles in youth, equally so does a sound... more...