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Drawings and Pharmacy in al-ZahrāwÄ«’s 10th-Century Surgical Treatise by Sami Hamarneh Probably the earliest independent work in Arabic Spain to embrace the whole of medical knowledge of the time is the encyclopedic al-TasrÄ«f, written in the late 10th century by AbГ…В« al-Qāsim al-ZahrāwÄ«, also known as Abulcasis. Consisting of 30 treatises, it is the only known work of... more...

INTRODUCTORY. The essays which compose this volume deal chiefly with a variety of subjects to which every physician must have given more or less thought. Some of them touch on matters concerning the mutual relation of physician and patient, but are meant to interest and instruct the laity rather than the medical attendant. The larger number have from their nature a closer relation to the needs of women than of men. It has been my fate of late... more...

[17] CHAPTER I—INSTRUMENTARIUM Direct laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, esophagoscopy and gastroscopy are procedures in which the lower air and food passages are inspected and treated by the aid of electrically lighted tubes which serve as specula to manipulate obstructing tissues out of the way and to bring others into the line of direct vision. Illumination is supplied by a small tungsten-filamented, electric, "cold" lamp situated at the... more...

I.—CRIMES Forensic medicine is also called Medical Jurisprudence or Legal Medicine, and includes all questions which bring medical matters into relation with the law. It deals, therefore, with (1) crimes and (2) civil injuries. 1. A crime is the voluntary act of a person of sound mind harmful to others and also unjust. No act is a crime unless it is plainly forbidden by law. To constitute a crime, two circumstances are necessary to be... more...

PREFACE. All diseases originate in the exuberance, deficiency, or retrograde action, of the faculties of the sensorium, as their proximate cause; and consist in the disordered motions of the fibres of the body, as the proximate effect of the exertions of those disordered faculties. The sensorium possesses four distinct powers, or faculties, which are occasionally exerted, and produce all the motions of the fibrous parts of the body; these are... more...


SECT. I. OF MOTION. The whole of nature may be supposed to consist of two essences or substances; one of which may be termed spirit, and the other matter. The former of these possesses the power to commence or produce motion, and the latter to receive and communicate it. So that motion, considered as a cause, immediately precedes every effect; and, considered as an effect, it immediately succeeds every cause. The MOTIONS OF MATTER may be... more...

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THE RENEWAL OF LIFE Every human being must sooner or later know the facts concerning the origin of his life on the earth. One of the most puzzling questions is how and when such information should be given to the young. There is nothing the parent more desires than that his child should have a high ideal in regard to the sex-life and that he should live in accordance with that ideal, yet nowhere is careful and systematic education so lacking as... more...

CHAPTER I. BIOLOGY. In this chapter we propose to consider Life in its primitive manifestations. Biology is the science of living bodies, or the science of life. Every organ of a living body has a function to perform, and Physiology treats of these functions. Function means the peculiar action of some particular organ or part. There can be no vital action without change, and no change without organs. Every living thing has a structure, and... more...

CHAPTER I Introductory How old is the problem of the Nervous Housewife? Did the semi-mythical Cave Man (who is perhaps only a pseudo-scientific creation) on his return from a prehistoric hunt find his leafy spouse all in tears over her staglocythic house-cleaning, or the conduct of the youngest cave child? Did she complain of her back, did she have a headache every time they disagreed, did she fuss and fret until he lost his patience and... more...