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Chapter XXXIX: Gothic Kingdom Of Italy.—Part I. Zeno And Anastasius, Emperors Of The East.—Birth,Education, And First Exploits Of Theodoric The Ostrogoth.—His Invasion And Conquest Of Italy.—The Gothic Kingdom OfItaly.—State Of The West.—Military And Civil Government.—The Senator Boethius.—Last Acts And Death Of Theodoric. After the fall of the Roman empire in the West, an interval of fifty years,... more...

Chapter XLIX: Conquest Of Italy By The Franks.—Part I. Introduction, Worship, And Persecution Of Images.—Revolt OfItaly And Rome.—Temporal Dominion Of The Popes.—ConquestOf Italy By The Franks.—Establishment Of Images.—CharacterAnd Coronation Of Charlemagne.—Restoration And Decay Of TheRoman Empire In The West.—Independence Of Italy.—Constitution Of The Germanic Body. In the connection of... more...

Chapter XXVII: Civil Wars, Reign Of Theodosius.—Part I. Death Of Gratian.—Ruin Of Arianism.—St. Ambrose.—FirstCivil War, Against Maximus.—Character, Administration, AndPenance Of Theodosius.—Death Of Valentinian II.—SecondCivil War, Against Eugenius.—Death Of Theodosius. The fame of Gratian, before he had accomplished the twentieth year of his age, was equal to that of the most celebrated princes.... more...

CHAPTER I THE ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION PREHISTORIC ARCHÆOLOGY Prehistoric Remains.—One often finds buried in the earth, weapons, implements, human skeletons, débris of every kind left by men of whom we have no direct knowledge. These are dug up by the thousand in all the provinces of France, in Switzerland, in England, in all Europe; they are found even in Asia and Africa. It is probable that they exist in all parts of... more...

I propose to describe the Greatness and the Misery of the old Roman world; nor is there any thing in history more suggestive and instructive. A little city, founded by robbers on the banks of the Tiber, rises gradually into importance, although the great cities of the East are scarcely conscious of its existence. Its early struggles simply arrest the attention, and excite the jealousy, of the neighboring nations. The citizens of this little... more...


THE VALUE OF GREECE TO THE FUTURE OF THE WORLD If the value of man’s life on earth is to be measured in dollars and miles and horse-power, ancient Greece must count as a poverty-stricken and a minute territory; its engines and implements were nearer to the spear and bow of the savage than to our own telegraph and aeroplane. Even if we neglect merely material things and take as our standard the actual achievements of the race in conduct and... more...

Chapter LIX: The Crusades.—Part I. Preservation Of The Greek Empire.—Numbers, Passage, AndEvent, Of The Second And Third Crusades.—St. Bernard.—Reign Of Saladin In Egypt And Syria.—His Conquest OfJerusalem.—Naval Crusades.—Richard The First Of England.—Pope Innocent The Third; And The Fourth And Fifth Crusades.—The Emperor Frederic The Second.—Louis The Ninth OfFrance; And The Two Last... more...

Chapter LIX: The Crusades.—Part I. Preservation Of The Greek Empire.—Numbers, Passage, AndEvent, Of The Second And Third Crusades.—St. Bernard.—Reign Of Saladin In Egypt And Syria.—His Conquest OfJerusalem.—Naval Crusades.—Richard The First Of England.—Pope Innocent The Third; And The Fourth And Fifth Crusades.—The Emperor Frederic The Second.—Louis The Ninth OfFrance; And The Two Last... more...

Chapter XXXIX: Gothic Kingdom Of Italy.—Part I. Zeno And Anastasius, Emperors Of The East.—Birth,Education, And First Exploits Of Theodoric The Ostrogoth.—His Invasion And Conquest Of Italy.—The Gothic Kingdom OfItaly.—State Of The West.—Military And Civil Government.—The Senator Boethius.—Last Acts And Death Of Theodoric. After the fall of the Roman empire in the West, an interval of fifty... more...

Chapter XVI: Conduct Towards The Christians, From Nero To Constantine.—Part I. The Conduct Of The Roman Government Towards The Christians,From The Reign Of Nero To That Of Constantine. 1111 ()[ The sixteenth chapter I cannot help considering as a very ingenious and specious, but very disgraceful extenuation of the cruelties perpetrated by the Roman magistrates against the Christians. It is written in the most contemptibly factious... more...